**Title**: "Vacuums and strings".

**Author**: Thierry PERIAT.

**Matriculation**: ISBN 978-2-36923-077-9, EAN 9782369230779.

**Language**: GB.

**Number of pages**: 29.

**Datum**: 30 November 2020.

**Version**: 4.

**Document** on zenodo.org (extern link). Please cite as:

PERIAT. (2020). Vacuums and Strings. Zenodo. https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.4298946.

**Introduction**:

Our universe is experimenting an accelerated expansion. This is the conclusion published in 1998 and 1999 by the High-Z supernovae search team and the Supernova Cosmology project. These results have been rewarded with the 2011 Nobel Prize in physics.

Instead of answering all questions, this conclusion has pushed the standard FLRW model in front of observational challenges. Two examples illustrate this affirmation: the “problem of time” and the “cosmological constant problem”. Furthermore, the rewarded results have received a contradiction in November 2019.

At the same time, observations, and simulations (Millennium, Illustris TNG, Bolshoi …) have revealed the existence of a titanic web containing nodes and filaments. These images motivate the construction of a cosmological models containing material strings surrounding giant empty voids.

This document is built around two pillars: (i) the concept of elastic strings and (ii) the theory studying deformed cross products, and their decompositions. These tools are sufficient to recover a set of equations of state characterizing perfect fluids including the case w = -1 and variations around that crucial value.

This approach introduces a so-called Euclidean enigma and can propose a first formula for the calculation of variations of the electromagnetic waves due to deformations.

**Comments:**

There exists a volumetric density of force in the so-called Maxwell's vacuum (far from any source).

A part of this density is due to an electromagnetic polarization, the origin of which must be searched in observing the activity of our universe.

In involving the simplest utilisation of the theory studying deformed tensor products, in extenso: the trivial decomposition of cross products, and in considering that that density acts "as if" it would be able to deform a piece of string, a whole set of equations of states for that Maxwell's vacuum can be generated. One of them is the relation:

pressure + density of energy = 0

A modern and simplified version of the document is also exposed on the French version of this page (click on the button allowing to switch between the languages at the top of this page).