This page is a section of Ultimate Electronics: Practical Circuit Design and Analysis, a free, online, interactive electronics textbook by Michael F. Robbins.

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Chapter 2 Example Circuits

Click any circuit to open in a new tab. Most include simulations.


From Ideal Sources:

Ideal Voltage and Current Source Symbols

Ideal Voltage Source DC Sweep

Ideal Current Source DC Sweep

First-Order Non-Ideal Voltage Source

DC Sweep of First-Order Non-Ideal Voltage Source

First-Order Non-Ideal Current Source

DC Sweep of First-Order Non-Ideal Current Source


From Ground:

Signal, Earth, Chassis Ground


From Resistance and Ohm's Law:

Ohm's Law - Fixed Resistor with Voltage Source

Ohm's Law - Fixed Resistor with Current Source

Ohm's Law - Adjustable Resistor with Voltage Source


From Power:

Linear Elements with Labeled Terminal Current and Voltage

Power Efficiency of LED and Resistor


From Practical Resistors: Manufacturing Tolerances, Common Values, and Color Codes:

Power Efficiency of LED and Resistor with Resistor Parameter Sweep


From Practical Resistors: Potentiometers:

Potentiometer Symbol


From Resistors in Series & Parallel:

Components in Series

KVL Two Paths

Two Resistors in Series

Two Resistors in Parallel

Resistors in Series and Parallel

Resistor Bridge Can't Be Reduced by Series and Parallel Rules

Power Efficiency of LED and Resistor


From Kirchhoff's Voltage Law and Kirchhoff's Current Law:

KCL Three Node Example

KCL Five Node Example

KCL Two Node Example

KCL Three Node Example

KVL Two Paths


From Labeling Voltages, Currents, and Nodes:

Linear Elements with Labeled Terminal Current and Voltage

Labeled Terminal Currents

Labeled Terminal Currents - With BJT and LED

KCL Three Node Example

Labeled Terminal & Branch Currents - With BJT and LED


From Solving Circuit Systems:

Linear Elements with Labeled Terminal Current and Voltage

Simple Circuit Solve Example

Simple Circuit Solve Example - Look at R1

Advanced Circuit Solve Example


From Superposition:

Advanced Circuit Solve Example

Advanced Circuit Solve Example - Superposition V1 only

Advanced Circuit Solve Example - Superposition V2 only

Advanced Circuit Solve Example - Superposition I1 only


From Open Circuit and Short Circuit:

Looking Into a Pair of Terminals

Open Circuit and Short Circuit


From Thevenin Equivalent and Norton Equivalent Circuits:

Thevenin Equivalent Black Box Three-Part Model

Thevenin Equivalent Voltage Source and Resistor

Thevenin Equivalent Voltage Source and Resistor and Test Current Source

Thevenin Equivalent Circuit Example, Nodes W and Ground

Thevenin Equivalent Circuit Example, Nodes W and Ground - Simplification 1

Thevenin Equivalent Circuit Example, Nodes W and Ground - Simplification 2

Thevenin Equivalent Circuit Example, Nodes W and Ground - Equivalent

Thevenin Equivalent Circuit Example, Nodes X and Z

Thevenin Equivalent Circuit Example, Nodes X and Z - Simplification 1

Thevenin Equivalent Circuit Example, Nodes X and Z - Simplification 2

Thevenin Equivalent Circuit Example, Nodes X and Z - Equivalent

Power Efficiency of LED and Resistor

Nonlinear Thevenin Equivalent with LED and Resistor

Thevinin and Norton Equivalents

Thevinin and Norton Equivalents Example


From Maximum Power Transfer and Impedance Matching:

Maximum Power Transfer DC Sweep

Maximum Efficiency DC Sweep

Maximum Voltage Transfer DC Sweep

Maximum Current Transfer DC Sweep


From Dependent (Controlled) Sources:

Voltage Controlled Voltage Source (VCVS) Example

Voltage Controlled Current Source (VCCS) Example

Current Controlled Voltage Source (CCVS) Example

Current Controlled Current Source (CCCS) Example

Voltage Controlled Voltage Source (VCVS) Example - Behavioral

Current Controlled Current Source (CCCS) Example - Behavioral

Self-Connected VCCS Acts as Resistor

Self-Connected VCCS Acts as Resistor - Behavioral Current Source

Self-Connected CCVS Acts as Resistor

Self-Connected CCVS Acts as Resistor - Behavioral Voltage Source


From Dependent Source Feedback:

VCVS with Feedback


From Superposition with Dependent Sources:

Superposition with Dependent Source Example

Superposition with Dependent Source Example - I1 only

Superposition with Dependent Source Example - V1 only

Thevenin Equivalent with Dependent Source

Thevenin Equivalent with Dependent Source - Equivalent

Thevenin Equivalent with Dependent Source


From Switches:

SPST Switch Has Two States

SPDT Switch Has Two States

Buttons and Switches

Microwave Oven Magnetron Door Latch Safety Interlock (Simplified)

Double-Pole Switches DPST and DPDT

DPST as Power Switch with Two Input Voltages

Resistive Circuit with SPST Switch

Resistive Circuit with SPST Switch (SW1 Open)

Resistive Circuit with SPST Switch (SW1 Open, Simplified)

Resistive Circuit with SPST Switch (SW1 Closed)

Resistive Circuit with SPST Switch (SW1 Closed, Step 1)

Resistive Circuit with SPST Switch (SW1 Closed, Step 2)

Resistive Circuit with SPST Switch (SW1 Closed, Step 3)

Resistive Circuit with SPST Switch (SW1 Closed, Step 4)

Resistive Circuit with SPST Switch

Inrush Current Spike when Switching Capacitive Load

Transient Switching Never Settles

Inrush Current Spike when Switching Capacitive Load

Implicit Switch with Skip Initial for Time-Domain Simulation

Transient Switching Never Settles

Voltage-Controlled Switch with Time-Based Behavioral Control

Voltage-Controlled Switch with PWS Control

Voltage-Controlled Switch with PWS Control (CSV)

Voltage-Controlled Switch with PWSREPEAT Control

Voltage-Controlled Switch with Digital Clock Control

Voltage-Controlled Switch with Voltage Feedback

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